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SEC Mandates Custody of Funds, Over N2.36 Trillion Now Under Custody

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has disclosed that it has brought about N2.36 trillion in discretionary and non-discretionary funds under custody following updates to the guidelines for Collective Investment Schemes in the country.

Last December, the commission proposed amendments aimed at addressing complaints within the Collective Investment Scheme segment of the capital market.

In a notice on its website titled ‘Exposure Of New And Sundry Amendments To The Rules And Regulations Of The Commission’, the SEC revealed the new amendments to its regulations.

Speaking at a media briefing after the first quarter Capital Market Committee meeting, Dr. Okey Umeano, the Chief Economist at SEC, explained that the funds in the discretionary and non-discretionary windows had been brought under custody to enhance investor protection.

Umeano stated, “Before the update to the rules, only the Collective Investment Schemes were put in custody. The funds in discretionary and non-discretionary products were not in custody. To further protect investors, we mandated all funds to be put in custody.”

He added, “At the end of the first quarter, we had N2.14 trillion in CIS funds and N2.36 trillion in discretionary and non-discretionary funds, all in custody.”

Former SEC Director-General, Lamido Yuguda, highlighted that while assets management and custody are typically separated, the arrangement only applied to public CIS, not bilateral arrangements.

With the new rules, all funds were mandated to be held by custodians.

Yuguda emphasized, “The object of this is to improve trust, ensure investor assets are protected, and give the market a boost.”

Meanwhile, President Bola Tinubu announced a new board for the commission, appointing Emomotimi Agama as the new SEC Director-General, replacing Yuguda. The new SEC board is chaired by Mairiga Katuka, with other members including Frana Chukwuogor, Bola Ajomale, Mrs. Samiya Hassan Usman, Mr. Lekan Belo, and Garba Kurfia.

Hilda Baci refutes VeryDarkMan’s claim of defrauding online cooking class students

Celebrity Chef Hilda Baci Responds to Allegations of Deception in Culinary Training Programme

Celebrity chef, Hilda Baci, has addressed the accusations made against her by self-proclaimed activist, VeryDarkMan, regarding alleged deception of followers who paid to enroll in her culinary training program.

In response to the allegations, Baci shared a screen recording showcasing her current online cooking class, effectively refuting the activist’s claims. The recording highlighted the enrollment of new students and the overall engagement within the online platform.

With a caption stating, “5880 active students, 156 recipes already posted, comprehensive editing class done, plating class done, an official assignment given. LOL,” Baci aimed to dispel any doubts about the authenticity of her program.

VeryDarkMan, in a video, accused Baci of accepting money from students who were not subsequently added to the teaching class. He asserted that such actions could be construed as “obtaining under false pretense” and amounted to fraud.

Addressing Baci directly in the video, he expressed concern that her actions were tarnishing the reputation of her brand. He criticized her for failing to address the complaints from numerous individuals who claimed to have paid for the online cooking class but received no response after the registration closed.

He emphasized, “You can’t collect money from people and just ghost them,” highlighting the frustration expressed by women in the comment section of Baci’s posts.

Baci’s response and the subsequent exchange between her and VeryDarkMan underscored the importance of transparency and accountability in online training programs, particularly in ensuring that participants receive the services they paid for.

Court of Appeal Dismisses APC’s Interlocutory Appeal in Bayelsa Governorship Dispute

ABUJA–The Court of Appeal sitting in Abuja, on Tuesday, dismissed an interlocutory appeal brought before it by the All Progressives Congress (APC) and its governorship candidate in Bayelsa State, Chief Timipre Sylva.

In a unanimous decision by a three-member panel led by Justice H.A Barka, the appellate court ordered the APC candidate to pay a N400,000 fine for filing the appeal, which it described as time-wasting.

The court directed that the cumulative cost be paid in favor of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), Governor Douye Diri, and his deputy, Senator Lawrence Ewhrudjakpo, all listed as respondents in the matter.

Sylva and his party had approached the appellate court, seeking to compel the Chairman and members of the Bayelsa State Governorship Election Petition Tribunal to recuse themselves from his petition to nullify Governor Diri’s election.

The Appellants had earlier written to the President of the Court of Appeal, Justice Monica Dongban-Mensem, demanding the disbandment of the tribunal, alleging bias. They filed the appeal after their petition was dismissed.

In the interlocutory appeal marked: CA/ABJ/EP/GOV/BY/09/2024, they challenged the tribunal’s refusal to recuse itself from Sylva’s petition against the election outcome.

However, when the appeal was called on Tuesday, Sylva and his party informed the court that they were no longer interested in pursuing it, revealing that they had already filed a notice of discontinuance.

In a brief ruling, the appellate court dismissed the appeal and ordered the Appellants to pay costs, noting that the Respondents had already filed processes and joined issues with them on the matter.

Justices A.B Mohammed and P. Obiorah, who were part of the appellate court panel, concurred with the ruling.

INEC had declared Governor Diri of the PDP as the winner of the election with 175,196 votes, defeating his closest rival, Sylva of the APC, who polled 110,108 votes.

However, dissatisfied with the outcome, Sylva approached the tribunal, alleging that results in three Local Government Areas were wrongly excluded by INEC. He argued that if the results from his strongholds were included, he would have won the gubernatorial contest.

The tribunal has concluded hearing on the petition and reserved its judgment.

How Mr Yahaya Bello withdrew $720,000 from Kogi state govt account to pay child’s school fees – EFCC

EFCC Accuses Former Kogi State Governor Yahaya Bello of Withdrawing $720,000 for School Fees

The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has alleged that Yahaya Bello, the former governor of Kogi State, withdrew $720,000 from a government account to pay school fees, as revealed by EFCC boss Ola Olukoyede.

This disclosure comes in the wake of the EFCC declaring the fugitive ex-governor wanted.

Bello had previously expressed his readiness to appear before the Federal High Court in Abuja to address the 19-count charge filed against him by the EFCC.

Although absent from his arraignment, Bello briefed his legal team, led by Mr. Adeola Adedipe, SAN, who represented him in court on Tuesday.

Adedipe, SAN, informed the court that Bello wished to attend the proceedings but harbored fears of arrest due to an outstanding arrest warrant against him.

“The defendant wants to come to court but he is afraid that there is an order of arrest hanging over his head,” Adedipe, SAN, stated.

Consequently, Bello’s legal team urged the court to set aside the ex parte order of arrest, contending that it was issued before the charge was served on him as required by law.

In addition to his absence, Bello reiterated his stance that the EFCC is an illegal organization. He argued that the EFCC Act, enacted by the National Assembly, required ratification by the Houses of Assembly of all states, as stipulated in Section 12 of the 1999 Constitution.

However, EFCC’s lawyer, Mr. Kemi Pinheiro, SAN, urged the court to dismiss Bello’s application, asserting that the arrest warrant should remain in effect until the defendant appears for trial.

Furthermore, EFCC emphasized that the legality of its operations had been settled by the Supreme Court. The agency clarified that the charges were not against a state or House of Assembly but against an individual accused of laundering public funds.

The EFCC assured the court that it would not execute the arrest warrant if Bello’s counsel undertook to ensure his presence on the next adjourned date, with Pinheiro, SAN, expressing readiness to apply for the warrant’s discharge upon receipt of such an assurance.

Former Aviation Minister Hadi Sirika Arrested by EFCC in N8 Billion Money Laundering Probe

The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has taken into custody Hadi Sirika, the former Minister of Aviation during the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari, in connection with an ongoing investigation into an alleged N8 billion money laundering scheme involving Nigeria Air.

According to reports gathered by Vanguard, Sirika was brought to the EFCC’s Federal Capital Territory Command around 1:00 pm on Tuesday for questioning.

Sirika is currently undergoing interrogation by EFCC investigators regarding purportedly fraudulent contracts awarded to Engirios Nigeria Limited, a company owned by his younger sibling, Abubakar Sirika.

In February, the EFCC initiated an inquiry into the activities of the Aviation Ministry under Sirika’s leadership, focusing on allegations of conspiracy, abuse of office, diversion of public funds, contract inflation, criminal breaches of trust, and money laundering, amounting to N8,069,176,864.00 during his tenure.

Abubakar Sirika, listed as the Managing Director and CEO of Engirios Nigeria Limited, is also the sole signatory to the company’s accounts held in Zenith and Union Banks. The EFCC has reportedly arrested and detained him in connection with N3,212,258,930.18 transferred to his company’s account by the former minister.

Investigations have revealed that no tangible work has been executed on any of the contract items awarded, raising suspicions of embezzlement and financial impropriety.

Sirika’s arrest comes as part of the EFCC’s broader efforts to scrutinize the financial transactions of the Aviation Ministry during his tenure, as he was detained on Sunday, February 4, to aid in the commission’s investigation of the ministry’s financial activities.

Tomato Farmers in Kano State Count Losses of Over N2 Billion Due to Caterpillar Invasion

Tomato farmers in Kano State are grappling with significant losses exceeding N2 billion as caterpillar insects wreak havoc on their crops, exacerbating the already soaring food prices.

Mukhtar Kura, Chairman of M.K. Kura Farms in Butalawa, Kura Local Government Area, Kano State, revealed the staggering extent of losses incurred by tomato farmers in a conversation with Vanguard. He lamented that farmers are facing immense hardship due to the sudden invasion of the insects.

According to Kura, the farmers experienced a similar ordeal in 2023, resulting in a loss of N1.5 billion within 24 hours in Bagwai and Dawakin Tofa Local Government Areas of Kano State. This time, the devastation has affected over 5,000 hectares of tomato and vegetable farms, representing two-thirds of the total dry-season farmlands.

“The tomato losses amount to N2 billion in this brief period,” Kura stated. He attributed the invasion to caterpillar insects identified as Sharoon, previously unseen by the farmers.

In response to the crisis, farmers have called on the state government to intervene urgently. The insects target both the leaves and fruit of the tomato plants, causing extensive damage.

“The AFAN chairman in Bagwai LGA appealed to federal, state, and local government authorities to aid the affected farmers in reviving their agricultural activities,” Kura emphasized. He also underscored the importance of agricultural extension workers studying the situation and implementing measures to mitigate losses.

Meanwhile, agricultural expert Engr Daniel Ijeh provided advice to farmers, recommending the application of a chemical called Emamectin Benzoate on tomato crops 15 days after planting. This chemical acts as a deterrent to the vectors, preventing them from settling and laying eggs that develop into caterpillars.

As tomato farmers grapple with mounting challenges, the broader implications of crop losses on food prices remain a concern, highlighting the urgency of addressing agricultural crises to ensure food security in Nigeria.

Nigeria shuts down British school over bullying, assault of student

Lead British International School in Abuja has been shut down for three days following a viral video depicting a disturbing incident of bullying within the school premises

The announcement was made during a press briefing attended by concerned parents on Tuesday at the school premises.

The decision to temporarily shut down the school comes in the wake of public outrage sparked by the circulating videos, which captured a female student being subjected to physical and emotional abuse by her peers.

The disturbing footage depicted the victim being repeatedly slapped by another female student in what appeared to be an interrogation session.

The incident prompted widespread condemnation and calls for swift action to address the issue of bullying within the school community.

Abraham Ogunkambi, the Head of Lead British International School, issued a statement on Tuesday, in response to the incident.

He stated the school’s disapproval of the incident and confirmed the launch of an investigation into the matter.

“The school management is treating this matter with the utmost seriousness,” Ogunkambi asserted.

He mentioned that the school has already reached out to the victim and her parents, providing them with necessary support and counseling services to manage the emotional and psychological consequences of the incident.

Berger Paints Nigeria Plc Proposes 80 Kobo Final Dividend

Plans Ratification of Interim Dividend

Berger Paints Nigeria Plc has announced a proposed final dividend of 80 kobo per share for its shareholders, pending approval at the company’s 64th Annual General Meeting (AGM) scheduled for Tuesday, May 14, in Lagos.

The proposed dividend, totaling N232 million, marks an increase from the N203 million paid in 2022, bringing the total dividend for the review period to N1 per share.

Additionally, the company will seek ratification of an interim dividend payment of 20 kobo per share, amounting to N58 million, at the AGM.

Highlighting the company’s performance for the 2023 financial year, Berger Paints Nigeria Plc reported a profit of N468 million, up from N208 million in 2022. Basic earnings per share surged from 72 kobo to 162 kobo, reflecting a remarkable 125 percent increase.

Alaba Fagun, Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of Berger Paints Nigeria Plc, attributed the outstanding performance to the company’s strategic rebranding efforts, adoption of modern technology to ensure product quality, and the presence of a robust human capital.

Fagun emphasized Berger Paints’ commitment to customer satisfaction and underscored the company’s resilience amidst challenges faced in the operating environment.

Reviewing other performance indicators, Berger Paints recorded a 25 percent increase in revenue, reaching N7.97 billion. Operating profit surged by 101 percent to N774.74 million, while total assets grew by approximately 20 percent, reaching N6.61 billion.

Looking ahead, Fagun expressed the company’s determination to expand its market share, enhance operational efficiency, and innovate to deliver exceptional service to customers.

Nasarawa Police Arrest Three Suspected kidnappers

April 23, 2024.

Azonuchechi Chukwu.

Operatives of the Nasarawa State Police Command have arrested three suspected kidnappers in Karu Local Government Area of the state.

The spokesperson for the command, DSP Ramhan Nansel in a statement issued on Tuesday, April 23, 2024, said the suspects namely Babangida Abdullahi, 29, Mohammed Abubakar, 27, and Yakubu Sani,30, were arrested by operatives attached to the Mararaba ‘A’ Division of the Nigeria Police.

“The suspects allegedly conspired among themselves and placed a call across to one Ibrahim Idris of the same address, an uncle to one of the suspects,” the statement reads.

“They threatened to kidnap him if he doesn’t pay a ransom of N2 million.

“Scared of being kidnapped, the victim dropped the total sum requested by the suspects at their preferred location; after which they picked it up and shared it among themselves.”

The statement added that the three suspects have all confessed to the commission of the crime and effort is ongoing to arrest one member of the syndicate who escaped arrest by whiskers. (www.naija247news.com).

USA Invests $15 Million, Trains 46,000 Nigerian Troops for Northern, Middle-Belt Dispute Resolution

The United States, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has invested $15 million in the Community Initiatives to Promote Peace (CIPP) program

ABUJA, Nigeria, April 23, 2024/ — The United States and Nigeria are working together to address and mitigate the drivers of conflict in northern and middle-belt Nigeria, including ethnic, regional, and sectarian tensions across communities.

Over the past five years, the United States, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has invested $15 million in the Community Initiatives to Promote Peace (CIPP) program.

This initiative has trained more than 46,000 community members, including traditional leaders, women, men, and youth, in six states – Benue, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kogi, and Plateau – on skills such as dispute resolution, early warning and early response, reconciliation efforts, and prevention of violent extremism.

The CIPP program has been helped mitigate violent conflict in at-risk communities and engaged women and youth in peace processes.

A randomized control trial, which compared how the activity worked in its target communities with nearby communities that did not include any interventions, showed that despite the overall increase in violence in Plateau, Benue, and other states, violent conflict was lower in communities where USAID worked.

For instance, after four years of implementation, the study showed that only 29 percent of CIPP treatment communities experienced violent incidents, compared to 55 percent in control communities – a difference of 26 percent.

“The CIPP activity has shown that a timely investment in peace can yield remarkable dividends,” said USAID Mission Director, Melissa A. Jones at yesterday’s ceremony. “Individuals trained in conflict mediation skills across Nigeria’s Middle Belt helped resolve hundreds of disputes before they escalated further,” she added.

As part of its closeout plan, USAID will transfer some of CIPP’s community structures, such as Conflict Mitigation Regional Councils and Women Peace Councils, to its new Peace Action for Rapid and Transformative Nigerian Early Response activity.

This will ensure continuity and sustained progress in our shared mission to promote peace and security in the northern and middle-belt regions.

Emeka Ihedioha Resigns from PDP, Citing Party’s Departure from Core Values

Former Imo State Governor, Emeka Ihedioha, has tendered his resignation from the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), expressing his disillusionment with the party’s current trajectory.

In a letter dated April 23, 2024, addressed to the PDP chairman in Mbutu Ward, Aboh Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Ihedioha lamented the party’s divergence from his personal principles, stating that it was veering in the wrong direction.

According to the former governor, the PDP, as it stands, is incapable of effecting internal reforms, upholding its own regulations, or providing credible opposition to the ruling All Progressives Congress (APC).

Ihedioha’s letter, obtained by Naija247news, outlined his longstanding association with the PDP since its inception in 1998, during which he actively contributed to its growth and transformation. However, he expressed regret that recent developments within the party compelled him to reassess his allegiance.

He stated, “Despite my attempt to offer counsel, the party is, sadly no longer able to carry out internal reforms, enforce its own rules or offer credible opposition to the ruling All Progressives Congress.”

In light of these circumstances, Ihedioha declared his immediate resignation from the People’s Democratic Party, affirming his commitment to continuing his engagement in the advancement of democracy and good governance in Nigeria.

“While this decision was difficult to take, I, however, believe that it is the right one,” he concluded, signaling his readiness to contribute to Nigeria’s political landscape beyond party affiliations.

JUST IN: I am willing to appear in court, but afraid of arrest – Yahaya Bello

Embattled former governor of Kogi state, Yahaya Bello stated that he is ready to confront the Federal High Court in Abuja regarding the 19-count indictment filed against him by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).

Adeola Adedipe, SAN, a member of his legal team, said his client would have appeared in court but was worried about being taken into custody.

He said: “The defendant wants to come to court but he is afraid that there is an order of arrest hanging on his head.”

He asked the court to revoke the exparte order of arrest it had previously imposed on the former governor.

Adedipe argued that the charge had not been served on his client as required by law at the time the warrant of arrest was made.

He noted that it was only at the resumed proceedings on Tuesday that the court okayed substituted service of the charge on the defendant, through his lawyer.

“As at the time the warrant was issued, the order for substituted service had not been made. That order was just made this morning.

“A warrant of arrest should not be hanging on his neck when we leave this court,” counsel to the defendant added.

CBN Sells $10,000 at N1,021/$1. to Each Licensed BDC Operator


The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has announced the sale of $10,000 to every licensed Bureau De Change (BDC) operator across the country, marking its second intervention in the month.

In a circular directed to the president of the Association of Bureau De Change Operators (ABCON), the CBN provided specifics of the intervention. BDCs are granted the opportunity to purchase dollars at the rate of N1,021 per dollar and are authorized to sell this forex to eligible end-users at a maximum spread of 1.5 percent above the purchase price, translating to a maximum selling price of N1,036.15 per dollar.

On April 8, 2024, the CBN sold $10,000 FX to each of the 1,588 participating BDCs at a fixed rate of N1101 per US dollar, with a spread capped at 1.5 percent above the purchase price from the CBN (approximately N1,116.15 per dollar). This move limited the potential profit BDCs could make on each transaction.

The latest circular mandates all eligible BDCs to initiate immediate payment of the Naira equivalent for their allocated $10,000 into designated CBN Naira Deposit Accounts, accompanied by the submission of necessary documentation to facilitate forex disbursement at respective CBN branches.

The CBN’s recent intervention is likely to be received with cautious optimism by market participants. The continuous injection of US dollars into the BDC segment aims to enhance forex access for legitimate transactions, potentially easing pressure on the parallel market.

However, the effectiveness of this strategy depends on various factors: the adequacy of the allocated amount to meet current forex demand remains uncertain; strict adherence to the stipulated maximum selling price by BDCs is crucial for ensuring transparency and averting market distortions; and while interim measures like these offer temporary relief, addressing the root causes of FX scarcity is imperative for long-term market stability.

The CBN’s recent actions since February 2024 underscore its ongoing commitment to manage forex liquidity and ensure the smooth operation of the foreign exchange market.

The success of this strategy hinges on continual monitoring, adjustments as necessary, and fostering a more market-driven approach to FX allocation in the long term.

Again, Dangote crashes diesel, and Aviation fuel prices further to N940, N980 respectively

The Dangote Cement Plc logo stands on a barrier at the under-construction Dangote Industries Ltd. oil refinery and fertilizer plant site in the Ibeju Lekki district, outside of Lagos, Nigeria, on Thursday, July 5, 2018. The $10 billion refinery, set to be one of the worlds largest and process 650,000 barrels of crude a day, should be near full capacity by mid-2020, Devakumar Edwin, group executive director at Dangote Industries said in an interview. Photographer: Tom Saater/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Dangote Petroleum Refinery has again announced a further reduction in the prices of both diesel and aviation fuel to N940, N980 per litre respectively.

This is coming in the wake of its widely celebrated price reduction to N1,000 barely two weeks ago.

The price change of N940 applies to customers buying five million litres and above from the refinery, while the price of N970 is for customers buying one million litres and above.

Speaking on the new development, the Head of Communication, Mr Anthony Chiejina, explained that the new price is in consonance with the company’s commitment to cushion the effect of economic hardship in Nigeria.

“I can confirm to you that Dangote Petroleum Refinery has entered a strategic partnership with MRS Oil and Gas stations, to ensure that consumers get to buy fuel at affordable price, in all their stations be it Lagos or Maiduguri. You can buy as low as 1 litre of diesel at N1,050 and aviation fuel at N980 at all major airports where MRS operates.”

He further stated that the partnership will be extended to other major oil marketers. “The essence of this is to ensure that retail buyers do not buy at exorbitant prices.

“The Dangote Group is committed to ensuring that Nigerians have a better welfare and as such, we are happy to announce this new prices and hope that it would go a long way to cushion the effect of economic challenges in the country.

It would be recalled that the management of Dangote Petroleum Refinery announced a further reduction of the price of diesel from 1200 to 1,000 Naira per litre barely two weeks ago.

This marks the third major reduction in diesel price in less than three weeks when the product sold at N1,700 to N1,200 and also a further reduction to N1,000 and now N940 for diesel and N980 for aviation fuel per litre.

Nigerian President Bola Tinubu had also commended Mr Dangote for the initial price reduction, describing it as an “enterprising feat.”

Reacting to the latest development, The Director General of the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN), Mr. Ajayi Kadiri, said that “The decision of Dangote Refinery to first crash the price from about N1,750/litre to N1,200/litre, N1,000/litre and now N940 is an eloquent demonstration of the capacity of local industries to positively impact the fortunes of the national economy.”

He added that “The trickledown effect of this singular intervention promises to change the dynamics in the energy cost equation of the country, in the midst of inadequate and rising cost of electricity.

“The reduction will have far-reaching effects in critical sectors like industrial operations, transportation, logistics, and agriculture, contributing to easing the high inflation rate in the country; a lot of companies will be back in operation.”

NNPC Ltd. and Partner Restart Awoba Field, Aim to Reach 12,000bpd Production

**BUSINESS Headline:** NNPC Ltd. and Partner Boost Production to 12,000bpd from Awoba Unit Field

**Rewritten Story:**

In a concerted effort to enhance the nation’s hydrocarbon assets’ productivity, the Nigerian National Petroleum Company Limited (NNPC Ltd.), in collaboration with its Joint Venture partner, Newcross Exploration and Production Ltd., has recommenced production from the Awoba field.

The Awoba field, which ceased contributing to the Bonny Terminal in 2021 and was eventually closed down in February 2022 due to evacuation challenges and crude oil theft, has been rejuvenated by NNPC Ltd. and its partners since April 13, 2024.

Initially averaging at 8,000 barrels per day, production from the Awoba field is projected to reach a peak of 12,000 barrels per day within 30 days of full ramp-up. Moreover, Awoba is anticipated to substantially augment gas supply to the power sector and other gas-dependent industries.

Situated in the mangrove swamp south of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, the Awoba Unit spans OMLs 18 and 24, both managed by NNPC Upstream Investment Management Services (NUIMS).

NNPC Ltd. has recorded notable production achievements across its Joint Venture portfolio, significantly bolstering the nation’s overall production. Alongside the recent commencement of production at the Madu Field by NNPC Ltd./First E&P JV, the company successfully restarted production at OMLs 29 and OML 18 in late 2023, contributing an average of 60,000 barrels per day to the nation’s production output since their revival.

Commenting on the milestone, Mallam Mele Kyari, the Group Chief Executive Officer of NNPC Ltd., attributed the achievement to the supportive operating environment fostered by the administration of President Bola Ahmed Tinubu. Kyari expressed gratitude to all stakeholders, including staff, operators, host communities, government security agencies, and private security contractors, for their pivotal roles in attaining this feat.