Q3 2018: Akwa Ibom emerges Nigerian state with highest unemployment rate of 37.7%

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During the quarter, Lagos state expectedly recorded the highest labor force population

The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) on Friday released Nigeria’s latest Labour Force Statistics.
NBS said the number of unemployed Nigerians has hit 20.9 million.

Unemployment and Underemployment rates vary across states according to the nature of economic activity predominant in each State. States with a higher focus on seasonal agriculture tend to have higher rates of underemployment compared to unemployment. This may swing from high full-time employment during periods of planting and harvest, when they are fully engaged on their farms, to periods of high underemployment and even unemployment at other periods in between.

In Q3 2018, Akwa Ibom state reported the highest unemployment rate (37.7%), followed by Rivers State with (36.4%), Bayelsa state (32.6%), Abia (31.6%) and Borno state (31.4%). The top 5 states with the highest unemployed population are Rivers (1,673,991), Akwa Ibom (1,357,754), Kano (1,257,130), Lagos (1,088,352) and Kaduna with (940,480).

States with a higher propensity for women to be housewives or stay home husbands or that have negative attitudes to working tend to have lower unemployment rates, as they are not considered part of the labour force in the first place, and as such have no bearing on the rate of unemployment. (You have to be within the labour force to be employed, underemployed and unemployed and you are not part of the labour force if you are not looking for work even if you don’t work). The such States tend to have a higher proportion of their economically active populations (those aged 15 – 64) outside the labour force, thereby reducing the number available and looking for work and the number that can be unemployed or underemployed.

Among these 5 states with the highest unemployed population, Lagos state reported the lowest rate of 14.6% during the reference quarter. Katsina, Jigawa, Kaduna, and Yobe, recorded the highest underemployment rates during the reviewing period, of 39.5%, 38.1%, 31.0% and 30.0% respectively. The National unemployment rate for the quarter was 23.1%, while the underemployment rate was 20.1%.

State unemployment is a “moment-in-time” index only and can change quite quickly. It is, therefore, advisable to be cautious in comparing trends, particularly amongst States, because of the ease of movement across State borders, as job seekers search for employment or economic opportunities in other states. Favourable conditions in one state may lead to an influx of job seekers in that state and in the process increasing unemployment in the performing state while reducing the unemployment rate in the originating state. This may give a false impression that the state with the lower unemployment rate is performing better.

Between Q3 2017 and Q3 2018, only 9 States recorded a reduction in their unemployment rates despite an increase in the national unemployment rate. They include Akwa Ibom, Enugu, Imo, Kaduna, Kogi, Lagos, Nasarawa, Ondo and Rivers. The same states recorded a reduction in their combined unemployment and underemployment rates.

The 6 States that recorded the highest gains in net full-time employment between Q3 2017 and Q2 2018 include Lagos adding 740,146 net full-time jobs, Rivers (235,438), Imo(197,147), Ondo (142,514), Enugu (122,333), Kaduna (118,929).
Definition and Methodology
Labour force and non-labour force

The total population in Nigeria is divided into the labour force (currently active) and non-labour force (not currently active). The labour force population covers all persons aged 15 to 64 years who are willing and able to work regardless of whether they have a job or not. The definition of unemployment, therefore, covers persons (aged 15–64) who during the reference period were currently available for work, actively seeking for work but were without work.

The non-labour force includes population below 15 or older than 64, as well as those within the economically active population i.e. 15‐64, who are unable to work, not actively seeking for work or choose not to work and/or are not available for work.

Examples of these are voluntary full-time housewives, underage children 14 and below, adults above 65, full-time students, those in active military service, physically challenged and incapacitated persons whose incapacitation prevents them from working. Changes in the labour force are mainly determined by population growth, but is also dependent on the decisions by constituents of the economically active population, on whether to work or not, which varies across different cultures, regions, and is also affected by other factors including academic, economic and family considerations. For example, a housewife might decide to take up employment to supplement the family income due to changes in the husband’s income or due to added family needs. Also, a person might decide to take some time off work to either study for a Master’s program or to recover from ill health. All these decisions can add or subtract to and from the labour force at each point in time.
Employment and Unemployment

A person is regarded as employed if he/she is engaged in the production of goods and services, thereby contributing to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in a legitimate manner, which is a component of the national accounts and receives any form or amount of compensation for that activity. Accordingly, it does not consider the employed persons’ satisfaction with the work, meets with his or her qualification or whether his compensation is suitable/satisfactory. There is no universal standard definition of unemployment as various countries adopt definitions to suit their local priorities. However, all countries, use the International Labor Organization (ILO) definition, or a variant of it to compute its unemployment estimates. The ILO definition covers persons aged 15–64 who during the reference period (which is usually the week preceding the time the survey is administered) were available for work, actively seeking work, but unable to find work.

The Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics, like most countries in the world, uses a variant of the ILO definition. The unemployment rate is the proportion of those in the labour force (not in the entire economic active population, nor the entire Nigerian population), who were actively looking for work but could not find work for at least 20 hours during the reference period. Accordingly, you are unemployed if you did absolutely nothing at all, or did something but for less than 20 hours during the reference week.

Hence, the unemployment rate is calculated by dividing the labour force population by labour force population:

Underemployment, however, occurs if you work less than full-time hours, which is 40 hours, but work at least 20 hours on average a week and /or if you work full time but are engaged in an activity that underutilizes your skills, time and educational qualifications. Consequently, rural farmers only farming seasonally will be considered underemployed if they only work on their farms during the planting and harvests periods and do nothing in between. If farmers are however working in dry and wet seasons, as is increasingly becoming the case, they will then be considered to be in full-time employment. It is important to note that the international definition of unemployment, underemployment or employment is not a function of the quantity/suitability of wages earned nor it is a function of job satisfaction. Rather employment, underemployment, and unemployment are treated as a function of a person’s involvement or otherwise in economic activity even if that activity is performed solely to make ends meet and not for satisfaction or enjoyment. The suitability of wages or job fulfilment is covered under other indices such as the living standard, poverty rate or happiness index, but not in determining whether one is employed, unemployed or underemployed, which is a function of economic engagement.
Unemployment and Underemployment by State: Overview

The analysis below presents the labour force indicators for the reference period at the State level following a review of the methodology by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2014. Accordingly, it is not comparable to earlier labour force estimates which used different methodologies for computation. It Is also important to be cautious in comparing unemployment and underemployment rates across States due to the influence of migration. This means a higher unemployment rate in a State is not necessarily reflective of poor performance by the State. In certain cases, a State might experience an increase in its unemployment rate because it may be adjudged to be doing well economically and socially, which may lead to people moving from economically poor, or security challenging States to that State in search of better living standards and conditions. In such a case, that State’s unemployment rate may be high and rising because it’s good performance is attracting more unemployed and poor people, which would lead to an increase in its unemployment and poverty rates.

Similarly, a low unemployment rate does not necessarily equate to a sign of improving conditions in that State. The unemployment rate in a poor performing state can go down simply because unemployed persons who can’t find work in the State leave for another State in search of jobs and a better life. When the situation described above happens, the number of unemployed who have left that State which was doing badly will reduce the size of the labour force population, resulting in a seemingly better-looking unemployment rate. At the same time, it is possible that better unemployment rates in a state might be a sign of good performance by that State, just as a State with poorer looking unemployment rates may be a sign of poor performance by the State. Accordingly, cross-state comparisons to indicate performance should be treated cautiously.

The geopolitical zones with the highest Labor force population were the South-West, followed by the South-South, and then the North Western zone of the country. According to the 2018 Labor Force Survey conducted by NBS in the third quarter, Nigeria had a labour force of 90.47 million nationwide, among which Lagos, Rivers, Oyo, Kano and Akwa-Ibom accounted for 26.23% of the total labour force. The map below shows the labour force distribution in different states in the third quarter of 2018. Unemployment and Underemployment rates vary according to the nature of economic activity predominant in the State. Unemployment tends to be higher in the Southern States while underemployment tends to be higher in the Northern States where the majority of the workforce is involved in seasonal agricultural activities. States with a higher focus on seasonal agriculture tend to have higher rates of underemployment compared to unemployment and may swing from high full-time employment during periods of planting and harvest when they are fully engaged on their farms to periods of underemployment at other periods. States with a higher propensity of women to marry early or be housewives and hence not part of the labour force also tend to have lower unemployment rates. These States tend to have a higher proportion of their economically active population outside the labour force thereby reducing the number looking for work and hence the number that can be unemployed.
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In Q3 2018, Akwa Ibom state reported the highest unemployment rate (37.7%), followed by Rivers State with (36.4%), Bayelsa state (32.6%), Abia (31.6%) and Borno state (31.4%). The top 5 states with the highest unemployed population are Rivers (1,673,991), Akwa Ibom (1,357,754), Kano (1,257,130), Lagos (1,088,352) and Kaduna with (940,480). Among these 5 states with the highest unemployed population, Lagos state reported the lowest rate of 14.6% during the reference quarter.

Similarly, an underemployment map below shows that the regions with the highest rates were the North-East, North-Central and the North-West states in the third quarter of 2018. Katsina, Jigawa, Kaduna, Yobe and Niger states recorded the highest underemployment rates during the reviewing period, with 39.5%, 38.1%, 31.0%, 30.0%, and 26.9% respectively. South West states reported relatively low underemployment rates, however, the state with the lowest underemployment rate was Taraba state (9.0%).

When combining both unemployment rate and underemployment rate, Jigawa, Yobe, Rivers, Kaduna, Akwa Ibom, Borno, and Kano reported highest unemployed and underemployed rates in the third quarter of 2018, of 64.6%, 58.9%, 58.1%, 57.8%, 57.8%, 56.9% and 55.5% respectively. While Rivers, Kano, Akwa-Ibom, Kaduna, Lagos, Borno, and Imo reported the highest numbers of combined unemployment and underemployment population, altogether accounting for 35.2% of the total unemployed and underemployed population in Nigeria.
Q3 2018 Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment by State – Zonal and State Analysis
South-South Zone

In Q3, 2018, Akwa Ibom state reported the highest unemployment rate (37.7%), followed by Rivers state (36.4%), Bayelsa state (32.6%), Cross River state (30.6%), Delta state (25.4%) and Edo state (25.1%). For underemployment, Rivers state recorded the highest rate in South-South zone with 21.7%, followed by Akwa Ibom state (20.1%), Cross River state (19.9%), Edo state (18.4%), Delta state (17.9%) and Bayelsa state (17.2%). In the period under review, the state with the highest labour force population was Rivers state with 4,601,135, while Bayelsa state had the lowest labour force population with (1,363,014).
AKWA IBOM STATE

In Q3, 2018, the calculated unemployment rate for Akwa Ibom state was 37.7% (37.91% in Q3 2017), the highest unemployment rate in the zone, while the underemployment rate was 20.1%, this represents a 0.20 percentage points decrease in the unemployment rate and 1.33 percentage point increase in underemployment rate over the corresponding period of the previous year. At the same time, the labour force population of Akwa Ibom state stood at 3,599,981, an increase of 300,163 compared to Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 154,692 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
RIVERS STATE

Rivers state recorded the second highest unemployment rate and the highest underemployment rate, as well as, attaining the state with the largest labor force population in the zone. It recorded 36.4% for unemployment, a decline of 4.92 percentage points from 41.3% recorded in the 3rd quarter of 2017; while its underemployment rate increased from 18.8% in Q3, 2017 to 21.7% in Q3, 2018. During the same period, the labor force population increased by 299,928 from 4,301,207 in Q3, 2017 to 4,601,135 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 425,022 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
BAYELSA STATE

In Q3 2018, there was an increase of 2.6 percentage points in the unemployment rate, from 30.0% in Q3 2017 to 32.6% in Q3 2018, while the underemployment rate dropped by 0.34 percentage points, from 17.6% in Q3 2017 to 17.2% in Q3 2018. Comparatively, the labor force population increased by 109,821, to hit 1,363,014 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 49,705 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
CROSS RIVER STATE

In Q3 2018, the unemployment rate for Cross River stood at 30.6% (20.79% in Q3 2017), while the underemployment rate was 19.9%. This represents a 9.9 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate and a 0.2 percentage points drop in underemployment rate when compared to the rates realized in Q3, 2017. The labor force population increased to 1,936,998, from the figure recorded in Q3, 2017, representing an increase of 140,177. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 88,719 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
DELTA STATE

The unemployment rate for Delta state rose to 25.4% (18.09% in Q3 2017), representing a 7.3 percentage point increase from the same period of 2017. The rate of underemployment, however, decreased to 17.9% in Q3 2018 from 19.7% in Q3 2017. The estimated number of persons in the labor force increased to 3,120,370 during the quarter, an increase of 184,400 on the figure recorded in the third quarter of 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 78,809 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
EDO STATE

The rate of unemployment in the third quarter for Edo state increased to 25.1%, from 19.6% in the same quarter of the previous year. The underemployment rate, however, declined by 1.06 percentage points from 19.5% in Q3 2017, to 18.4% in Q3 2018. The labor force population was estimated at 2,095,235 an increase of 116,032 from Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 13,607 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.

SOUTH-EAST ZONE

In the third quarter of 2018, Abia state reported the highest unemployment rate (31.6%) in the zone, this was followed by Imo state (28.2%), Ebonyi state (21.1%), Enugu state (18.7%), and Anambra state (17.5%). Ebonyi state recorded the highest underemployment rate with 19.7%, followed by Enugu (17.7%), Anambra (17.6%), Abia (16.4%), and Imo state with the lowest (15.1%). During the same period, the Anambra state recorded the highest labour force population (3,251,915), while Ebonyi state recorded the lowest population in the labour force (1,528,582) for this zone. The chart below depicts the level of unemployment and underemployment in the zone.
ABIA STATE

As at Q3 2018, the level of unemployment rate in Abia state was 31.6% in Q3 2018 (28.6% in Q3 2017) – the highest rate recorded for the zone, while the underemployment rate was 16.4%. This represents an increase of 3.00 percentage points in the unemployment rate and a decrease 0f 0.41 percentage points in underemployment level compared to the corresponding quarter of 2017. In the same period, the labor force population of Abia state stood to 2,023,768, an increase of 54,147 persons or 2.7% compared to Q3, 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 25,276 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
IMO STATE

Imo state in Q3 2018, had the second highest unemployment rate and labor force population in the South-East Zone. It recorded an unemployment rate of 28.2% (29.4% in Q3 2017) and underemployment rate of 15.1%, which is a decline by 1.19 and 1.74 percentage points respectively when compared to Q3 2017. The labor force population in the state rose to 3,123,271, a 7.0% rise compared to the third quarter of 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 175,378 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
EBONYI STATE

Ebonyi State reported the highest underemployment rate for the zone at 19.7%, while the unemployment rate for the reference period was 21.1% (18.9%). This represents a 2.20 percentage points increase in the unemployment rate and a 2.42 increase in underemployment in the State. The number of persons in the labor force rose to 1,528,582 in the third quarter of 2018, an increase of 89,523 or 6.2% when compared to the corresponding quarter of 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 32,676 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
ENUGU STATE

In the third quarter of 2018, the unemployment and underemployment rates dropped by 1.81 percentage points, from 20.5% in Q3, 2017 to 18.7% in Q3 2018, and by 0.33 percentage points, from 18.0% in Q3 2017 to 17.7% in Q3 2018, respectively. On the other hand, the labor force population increased to 2,467,332 in Q3 2018, from the 2,349,603 recorded in Q3, 2017, representing an increase of 5.0% between both periods. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 135,365 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
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ANAMBRA STATE

Anambra state recorded the highest labor force population in the South-East zone in the Q3, 2018. Its unemployment and underemployment levels rose to 17.5% (13.8% in Q3 2017) and 17.6% respectively, representing a 3.95 percentage points increase in unemployment and a 1.94 percentage points increase in underemployment rate over the same period of the previous year. In the same period labour force population increased by 133,858 or 4.3%, from 3,118,057 in Q3 2017 to 3,251,915 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 9,309 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
SOUTH-WEST ZONE

In Q3 2018, in the South-West region of the country, Ekiti state reported the highest unemployment rate (20.2%), this was followed by Ogun state (16.4%), Lagos (14.6%), Ondo (14.2%), Oyo (10.3%) and Osun (10.1%) states. Ondo state recorded the highest underemployment rate with 17.6%, followed by Osun 14.6 %, Oyo state 14.3%, Ekiti state with 14.0%, Lagos state (12.4%), and Ogun state with the lowest (10.9%). The state with the highest jump in its unemployment rate was Ogun State, which rose by 6.8 percentage points, while the Lagos state recorded the biggest decline in its unemployment rate, declining by 3.7 percentage points. In the period under review, Lagos state as expected, had the highest labor force population (7,478,256), while Ekiti state had the lowest labor force population (1,770,459) in the South-West zone.
EKITI STATE

As of Q3 2018, the calculated unemployment rate for Ekiti state was 20.2% (14.56% in Q3 2017), the highest unemployment rate in the South-West zone, while the underemployment rate was 14.0%, this represents a 5.6 and 0.6 percentage points increase in the unemployment and underemployment rate respectively, when compared to the corresponding quarter of 2017. Along the same line, the labor force population of Ekiti state stood at 1,770,459, an increase of 358,354 or 2.2% compared to Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 68,110 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
OGUN STATE

Ogun state, during the reference quarter, had the second highest unemployment rate in the South-West zone. This stood at 16.4%, an increase of 6.8 percentage points, from the 9.6% recorded in Q3 2017. Underemployment within the same quarter declined to 10.9% from the 11.0% recorded in Q3 2017. During the same period, the labor force population increased by 92,633 or 3.1%, from 3,024,149 in Q3 2017 to 3,116,782 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 127,530 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
LAGOS STATE

During the quarter, Lagos state expectedly recorded the highest labor force population in the zone (as well as in the country). The population increased by 398,559 or 5.6%, from 7,079,697 in Q3 2017, to 7,478,256 in Q3 2018. The unemployment rate dropped to 14.6% (18.28% in Q3 2017) during the quarter, while the underemployment rates declined to 12.4%, this was a decrease of 3.7 and 3.0 percentage points respectively. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 574,744 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
ONDO STATE

Ondo state recorded the highest underemployment rate in the zone during the quarter, albeit the rate dropped from 19.1% in Q3, 2017 to 17.5% in Q3 2018. Unemployment, however, declined by 1.2 percentage points, moving from 15.4% in Q3 2017 to 14.2% in Q3 2018. The labor force population increased to 2,502,482 from 2,393,197 in Q3 2017, an increase of 4.6% between both periods. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 122,709 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
OYO STATE

The unemployment and underemployment rates for Oyo state rose to 10.3% (9.08% in Q3 2017) and 14.3% in Q3 2018 respectively. This represents a 1.3 and 0.8 percentage point increase in the levels of unemployment and underemployment rate over the same period of last year. The number of people in the labor force also increased by 105,489 or 2.7%, reporting the second largest labor force population in the South-West zone during the reference period. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 46,389 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
OSUN STATE

Unemployment and underemployment rates during the quarter increased to 10.1% (5.29% in Q3 2017) and 14.6% respectively. This shows an increase of 4.8 and 0.9 percentage points in unemployment and underemployment rates respectively when compared to the same quarter of 2017. The labor force population was 2,466,519 at the end of the third quarter, an increase of 91,773 or 3.9% from the figure recorded in Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 30,312 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
NORTH-CENTRAL ZONE

In 2018 Q3, Plateau state reported the highest unemployment rate (29.8%), followed by Nasarawa state (27.4%), FCT (24.4%), Kwara state (21.1%), Niger state (20.9%), Benue state (20.1%) and Kogi state (19.7%); while Niger state was rated the state with the highest underemployment rate in the North-Central zone with 26.9%, followed by Benue state (25.0.%), Kogi state (24.8%), Nasarawa state (24.3%), Plateau state (21.8%), Kwara state (21.4%) and FCT (16.1%). In the period under review, Benue state had the highest labor force population (2,777,485) and Nasarawa had the lowest population (1,366,207) in the North-Central zone.
PLATEAU STATE

As of Q3 2018, the calculated unemployment rates show that Plateau state at 29.8% (24.12% in Q3 2017), had the highest unemployment rate in the zone, while the state’s underemployment rate was 21.8%. This represents a 5.7% increase in the unemployment rate and a 0.6% decrease in the underemployment rate when compared to the third quarter of 2017. At the same time, the labor force population of Plateau state stood at 2,084,700, which is an increase of 127,893 or 6.5% compared to Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 1,755 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
NASARAWA STATE

Nasarawa state recorded the second highest unemployment rate and also the lowest labor force population in Q3 2018. Specifically, the state recorded 27.4% for its unemployment rate, which is a decline of 1.5 percentage points from the 28.9% reported in Q3 2017. Additionally, underemployment decreased by 0.2 percentage points from 24.5% in Q3, 2017 to 24.3% in Q3, 2018. During the same period, the number of people in the labor force increased by 83,609 or 6.5%, from 1,282,598 in Q3 2017 to 1,366,207 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 78,115 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY (FCT)

The FCT in Q3 of 2018, recorded an increase of 8.8 percentage points in its unemployment rate, from 15.7% in Q3 2017 to 24.4 %, it also recorded a 1.2 percentage points decline in its level of underemployment, from 17.2% in Q3 2017 to 16.1% in Q3 2018. The labour force population however, increased from 1,616,778 in Q3, 2017 to 1,736,236 in Q3 2018, representing a 7.4% increase. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 52,670 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
KWARA STATE

In Q3 2018, the unemployment rate for Kwara state stood at 21.1% (13.19% in Q3 2017) which represents a 7.9 percentage points increase in the unemployment rate. The underemployment rate within the same quarter increased by 3.0 percentage points to hit 21.4% in Q3 2018, up from 18.4% in Q3, 2017. The quarter in review recorded an increase of 98,483 or 6.5% in the labor force population to 1,612,476 when compared to the same period last year. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 41,793 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
NIGER STATE

The unemployment rate for Niger state rose to 20.9% (10.76% in Q3 2017) in the third quarter of 2018. This represents a 10.1 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate over the same quarter in 2017. Niger state recorded the highest underemployment rate (26.9%), recording a decline of 2.8 percentage points from the level recorded in Q3, 2018. The number of persons in the labor force increased to 1,917,790 in Q3 2018, an increase of 114,504 or 6.4% over the figure recorded in Q3, 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 94,266 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
BENUE STATE

The unemployment rate in Q3 2018 for Benue state increased to 20.1% from 10.4% in Q3 2017. Underemployment during the quarter, however, increased by 1.2 percentage points, from 23.8% in Q3 2017 to 25.0% in Q3 2018. The labor force also increased to 2,777,485 in Q3 2018, which is 322,572 or 13.1% more than the number recorded in Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 25,213 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
KOGI STATE

Kogi state recorded the second highest labor force population during the quarter. It recorded an unemployment rate of 19.7% (20.65% in Q3 2017) and an underemployment rate of 24.8% in the period under review. This was a decline of 0.9 percentage points in unemployment and an increase of 3.5 percentage points in the level of underemployment when compared to the levels recorded in Q3, 2017. During the same period, the Kogi state labor force population recorded an increase of 124,735 or 5.3% from the number recorded in Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 136,400 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
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NORTH-EAST ZONE

In the third quarter of 2018, Borno state reported the highest unemployment rate (31.4%) in the North-East zone, this was followed by Yobe state with (29.0%), Gombe state with (27.0%), Bauchi state (23.5%), Adamawa state (20.8%) and Taraba state with the lowest at (19.0%). Yobe state ranked highest for underemployment in North-East zone with (30.0%), followed by Borno state with (25.5%), Adamawa state (24.8%), Gombe state (23.7%), Bauchi state (23.6%), and Taraba state once again with the lowest in the zone with (9.0%). In the period under review, Q3 2018, Borno state had the highest labor force population at 2,468,890, while Gombe state had the lowest labor population in the North-East zone, recorded at 995,947.

BORNO STATE

As of Q3 2018, the computed unemployment rate for Borno state was 31.4% (23.63% in Q3 2017), the highest unemployment rate in the zone, while the underemployment rate stood at 25.5%. This represents a 6.8 percentage point increase in the unemployment level and a 2.3 percentage point decline in the underemployment rate when compared to Q3 of 2017. The labor force population of Borno state was also the highest in the zone, hitting 2,468,890 in Q3 2018, an increase of 213,720 or 9.5% compared to Q3 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 27,556 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
YOBE STATE

Yobe state recorded the second highest unemployment rate and second lowest labor force population in Q3 2018 in the North-East zone. The state recorded a 29.0% (21.24% in Q3 2017) unemployment rate, which is an increase of 7.7% from 21.2% Q3 2017. Underemployment decreased by 6.9 percentage points from 36.9% in Q3 2017 to 30.0% in Q3 2018. The labour force population increased by 80,804 or 7.8%, from 1,032,847 in Q3, 2017 to 1,113,650 in Q3, 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 19,819 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
GOMBE STATE

In Q3 2018, the unemployment rate for Gombe state increased by 16.3 percentage points, from 10.7% in Q3 2017 to 27.0% in Q3 2018. The underemployment rate, on the other hand, decreased by 13.7 percentage points, from 37.4% in Q3 2017 to 23.7% in Q3 2018. The labor force in the state which was the lowest in the region, rose to 995,947 a rise of 18.9% over the corresponding period of 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 18,059 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
BAUCHI STATE

In Q3 2018, the unemployment rate for Bauchi state stood at 23.5 %, up from 9.3% in Q3 2017, which is an increase of 14.2 percentage points. The underemployment rate decreased by 5.8 percentage points from 29.4% in Q3, 2017 to 23.6% in Q3, 2018. Bauchi state labor force population increased by 234,147 or 12.4% to hit 2,122,724 when compared to the number reported in the same quarter of 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 93,428 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
ADAMAWA STATE

During the quarter under review, the unemployment rate for Adamawa state rose to 20.8%. This represents a 13.9 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate over the 6.9% recorded in Q3 2017. The underemployment rate at 24.8% in Q3 2018 decreased by 3.1 percentage points when compared to Q3 2017… Also, the number of persons in the labor force increased by 98,222 or 6.6%, from 1,490,057 Q3, 2017 to 1,588,278 in Q3, 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 130,991 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
TARABA STATE

Taraba state reported the lowest unemployment and underemployment rates for Q3 2018, even though both rates increased to 19.0% (7.26% in Q3 2017)and 9.0% respectively when compared to the levels reported in the third quarter of 2017. The labour force also recorded an increase of 33,416 or 1.5%, from 2,174,268 in Q3, 2017 to 2,207,684 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 229,851 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
NORTH-WEST ZONE

In the third quarter of 2018, Kano state reported the highest unemployment rate in the zone with (31.3%), this was followed by Kaduna state with (26.8%), Jigawa state with 26.5%, Sokoto state (26.0%), Kebbi state (20.1%), Zamfara state (18.0%), and Katsina state (14.3%). For underemployment, Katsina state recorded the highest underemployment rate in North West zone with (39.5%), followed by Jigawa state (38.1%), Kaduna state (31.0%), Sokoto state (26.6%), Kano state (24.3%), Zamfara state (23.0%) and Kebbi (16.9%). In the period under review, Kano state expectedly ranked the highest in terms of labor force population (4,022,761) and Zamfara state reported the lowest population (1,427,042) in the North-West zone.
KANO STATE

As at Q3 2018, the computed unemployment rate for Kano state was 31.3%, the highest unemployment rate in the zone while the underemployment rate was 24.3% (19.34%), this represents an increase of 11.8 percentage points in the unemployment rate and an 8.1 percentage point decrease in the underemployment rate when compared to Q3 of 2017. The labor force population for Kano state stood at 4,022,761, which is a significant increase of 339,496 or 9.2%, when compared to the 3,683,265 recorded in Q3, 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 185,863 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
KATSINA STATE

Katsina state recorded the lowest unemployment rate and highest underemployment rate in Q3 2018 for the North-West zone. The unemployment rate stood at 14.3% in Q3, 2018, from the 3.1% recorded in Q3 2017. The underemployment rate during this quarter decreased by 7.0 percentage points, from 46.5% Q3, 2017 to 39.5% Q3, 2018, while labor force population increased by 78,628 or 4.6%, to hit 1,799,855 when compared to the corresponding quarter of the previous year, 2017. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 124,161 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
JIGAWA STATE

Jigawa state recorded the second highest underemployment rate and second lowest labor force population in Q3 2018. During this quarter, this state recorded 26.5% (19.49% in Q3 2017) and 38.1% in unemployment and underemployment rates respectively – an increase of 7.0 percentage points in unemployment and a decline of 5.3% in underemployment. Additionally, the number of people in labor force increased by 138,478 from 1,415,391 in Q3 2017 to 1,553,870 in Q3 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 664 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
KADUNA STATE

Kaduna state in the third quarter of 2018, recorded an increase of 1.3 percentage points in the level of underemployment rate and a decrease of 1.1 percentage points in the unemployment rate, hence the underemployment and unemployment rate for Kaduna state was 31.0% and 26.8%(27.98% in Q3 2017) respectively in Q3, 2018. The labour force population increased by 230,146 or 7.0%, from 3,274,630 in Q3, 2017, to 3,504,777 in Q3, 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) increased by 233,483 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
SOKOTO STATE

In Q3 2018, the unemployment rate for the Sokoto state stood at 26.0% (18.47% in Q3 2017). This represents 7.6 percentage points increase in its unemployment rate. Underemployment within the same quarter under review decreased by 2.1% to reach 26.6% in Q3, 2018, from 28.7% in Q3, 2017. The labour force population also increased by 104,923 or 7.0%, from 1,567,997 recorded in Q3 2017 to 1,672,920 in Q3, 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 40,068 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
KEBBI STATE

The unemployment rate for Kebbi state rose to 20.1% (8.18%) in Q3, 2018. This represents an 11.9 percentage points increase in the unemployment rate over the period of Q3, 2017. The underemployment rate, however, was 16.9%, the lowest underemployment rate in the North-West zone in the reference period. The number of persons in the labour force increased by 77,989 or 5.3%, from 1,478,987 in Q3, 2017 to 1,556,976 in Q3, 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 116,699 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.
ZAMFARA STATE

Zamfara state recorded the lowest labour force population in Q3 2018 (1,427,042); this was, however, an increase of 2.0% over the level reported in Q3, 2017. The unemployment rate in Q3, 2018 for Zamfara state increased to 18.0% from 7.5% of Q3 2017, while the underemployment declined by 4.0 percentage points, from 27.0% in Q3, 2017 to 28.0% in Q3, 2018. The total net (created minus lost) number of employed persons (full time and part-time/underemployed) decreased by 122,476 persons within Q3 2017 and Q3 2018.

Download Q3 2018 Unemployment and Underemployment Rate By State Report

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